Definition of Saytzeff Rule. What is the Saytzeff Rule? Dehydrohalogenation of secondary- and tertiary-alkyl halides proceeds by the preferential removal of the . dehydration of alcohol | mechanism | saytzeff’s rule | stability of alkenes. 22 Jul The Zaitsev’s Rule (or Saytzeff rule) draws our attention to the alternate possibility . On elimination of HX, the more stable olefin is obtained (Fig.

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For a step-by-step swytzeff to predict the major product using Saytzeff Rule, check out this video lesson now! To make it easier to visualise, we can box up the alkene and count the number of alkyl groups attached to the alkene.

As a result, the Hofmann product is formed preferentially. Formation of the Zaitsev product requires elimination at the 2-position, but the isopropyl group — not the proton — is anti -periplanar to the chloride leaving group; this makes elimination at the 2-position impossible.

In the Hofmann elimination, treatment of a quaternary ammonium iodide salt with silver oxide produces hydroxide ion, which acts as a base and eliminates the tertiary amine to give an alkene. It also favors the formation of the Hofmann product, and for the same reasons. In E2 elimination reactions, a base abstracts a proton that is beta to a saytzfef group, such as a halide. In the Hofmann elimination, the least substituted alkene is typically favored due to intramolecular steric interactions.

Under these conditions, the stability of the developing double bond becomes important and this leads to the thermodynamically more stable product. Due to steric interactions, a bulky base — such as potassium t-butoxidetriethylamineor 2,6-lutidine — cannot readily abstract the proton that would lead to the Zaitsev product. C Brown had suggested that steric factors govern such elimination reactions. In an alkane, the maximum separation is that of the tetrahedral bond angle, In other projects Wikimedia Commons.


Looking for H2 Chemistry Tuition? Do consider taking up my classes at Bishan or online classes! As a result, the conformation necessary for the formation of the Zaitsev product is less energetically favorable than the conformation required for the formation of the Hofmann product.

For butene, it has 2 alkyl groups attached to the alkene. Zaitsev had cited Popov’s paper in previous gule and worked at the University of Kazan, and was thus probably aware of Popov’s proposed rule. How to predict Major Product for Elimination Reaction. As a result, this particular reaction produces only the Hofmann product.

Zaitsev’s rule – Wikipedia

In some cases, the stereochemistry of the starting material can prevent the formation of the Zaitsev product. Saytzeff or Zaitsev Rule states that the more substituted alkene will be the major product. Saytzeff Rule, Zaitsev Rule: Upper Saddle River, NJ: These intramolecular interactions are relevant to the distribution of products in the Hofmann elimination reaction, which converts amines to alkenes.

The charged leaving groups are large compared to neutral leaving groups. The apparent contradiction in this set of rules is easily resolved through a critical look at the mechanisms involved in these two sets of reaction conditions.

There could be two reasons for such preferences. Saytzeff’s rule or Saytzeff’s ruleSaytzeff’s rule is an empirical rule for predicting the favored alkene product s in elimination reactions.

Zaitsev and Markovnikov both studied under Alexander Butlerovtaught at the University of Kazan during the same period, and were bitter rivals. We notice that when bromine is eliminated from carbon-2, we can either remove a neighbouring hydrogen from carbon-1 or carbon It is more substituted therefore the major product.


To determine which is the major product, we have to figure out the degree of substitution for each alkene. The hydrogenation of alkenes to alkanes is exothermic.

Elimination Reaction for some alcohols and alkyl halides will result in different alkene products, and Saytzeff or Zaitsev Rule is used to determine the major product. Justus Liebig’s Annalen der Chemie. This page was last edited on 9 Octoberat Zaitsev was not the first chemist to saytzfef the rule that now bears his name.

Hofmann’s Rule and Zaitsev’s Rule – Chemistry LibreTexts

Rulf a result, the separation between alkyl groups is greatest in the most substituted alkene. Steric interactions within the substrate also prevent the formation of the Zaitsev product.

While at the University of KazanRussian chemist Alexander Zaitsev studied a variety of different elimination reactions and observed a general trend in the resulting saytzeft. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In spite of this, Zaitsev’s Liebigs Annalen paper makes no mention of Popov’s work.

Hofmann’s Rule and Zaitsev’s Rule

Therefore 2 different alkene products, butene and butene can be formed. Retrieved from ” https: While Rhle paper was well referenced throughout the 20th century, it was not until the s that textbooks began using the term “Zaitsev’s rule. Examining the heats of hydrogenation for various alkenes reveals that stability increases with the amount of substitution.